Blockchain technology was introduced, as the first ever implementation of a value bearing network without the need for a central authority, in 2008 with the publication of the Bitcoin whitepaper. By comparison, the first algorithms and programs for artificial intelligence and machine learning were written in the 1950s and 1960s. Despite this 60-plus year history, dominant frameworks for AI and machine learning, such as Caffe and Tensorflow, were only developed in 2013 and 2015 respectively. By a similar token, Facebook represents at a minimum the 4th generation of social media, preceded in dominance by AIM, Friendster, and MySpace, and is still facing increasingly robust competition from newer platforms such as TikTok. At the same time, Google only came to the market after other search engines such as Lycos, Infoseek, AltaVista, Ask Jeeves, and Yandex had already launched.